Atmospheric flows of semi-volatile organic pollutants to the Great Lakes estimated by the United States’ Integrated Atmospheric Deposition and Canada's Great Lakes Basin Monitoring and Surveillance Networks

Jiehong Guo, Amina Salamova, Marta Venier, Helena Dryfhout-Clark, Nick Alexandrou, Sean Backus, Lisa Bradley, Hayley Hung, Ronald A. Hites

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We calculated the wet and dry deposition, vapor absorption, and volatilization flows (in kg/yr) of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), nine organochlorine pesticides, and two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into and out of the Great Lakes during 2010–2015 (inclusive). Particle, vapor, and precipitation concentrations from five rural and remote stations (one site on each lake) and two urban sites, operated by the United States and Canada, were used for the flow calculations. Output from the water to the air was the most important process for PCBs, chlordanes, and p,p′-DDE. The flows of endosulfan, p,p′-DDT, and phenanthrene were dominated by vapor absorption from the air to the water. The flow of benzo[a]pyrene was controlled by wet and dry deposition to the water. The flows of the hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) into and out of the lakes were about equal, indicating air-water equilibrium for these compounds. Among the lakes, Lakes Superior and Erie had the highest input and output flows. The input and output flows for the five lakes were decreasing with halving times of 1–10 years and 10–40 years, respectively. Most chemicals had seasonal variations in their flows, with maximum inputs in the summer and maximum outputs in the fall. The flows of PCBs and PAHs into Lakes Michigan and Erie were associated with Chicago and Cleveland, respectively. Combining our data with previous data over the period 1992–2015, we estimated that the input flows of most of these chemicals have significantly decreased, but the output flows do not show consistent trends.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)670-681
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Great Lakes Research
Volume44
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's Great Lakes National Program Office (Todd Nettesheim, Project Officer) through cooperative agreement GL 00E01422 and by Environment and Climate Change Canada 's Chemicals Management Plan. We thank the various scientific teams for their ongoing support and operation of the programs, Tim Hunter from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory for providing us with meteorological information on the Great Lakes, and Anna Gawor (formerly of the ECCC) for retrospective calculations of flows from 2006 to 2009 for Lakes Michigan, Superior, and Erie.

Funding Information:
This work is funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Great Lakes National Program Office (Todd Nettesheim, Project Officer) through cooperative agreement GL 00E01422 and by Environment and Climate Change Canada's Chemicals Management Plan. We thank the various scientific teams for their ongoing support and operation of the programs, Tim Hunter from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory for providing us with meteorological information on the Great Lakes, and Anna Gawor (formerly of the ECCC) for retrospective calculations of flows from 2006 to 2009 for Lakes Michigan, Superior, and Erie.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018

Keywords

  • Atmospheric flows
  • Atmospheric loadings
  • Organochlorine pesticides
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  • Temporal trends

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