The association of weight loss with health care costs among older women is uncertain. Our study aim was to examine the association of objectively measured weight change with subsequent total health care (THC) costs and other health care utilization among older women. Our study population included 2,083 women (mean age 80.2 years) enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures and U.S. Medicare Fee for Service. Weight loss and gain were defined, respectively, as 5% decrease and 5% increase in body weight, and weight maintenance as <5% change in body weight over a period of 4.5 years. THC costs, outpatient costs, hospitalizations, and skilled nursing facility [SNF] utilization were estimated from Medicare claims for 1 year after the period during which weight change was measured. The associations of weight change with THC and outpatient costs were estimated using generalized linear models with gamma variance and log link functions, and with hospitalizations and SNF utilization using logistic models. Adjusted for age and current body mass index (BMI), weight loss compared with weight maintenance was associated with a 35% increase in THC costs ($2148 [95% CI, 745 to 3552], 2014 U.S. dollars), a 15% increase in outpatient costs ($329 [95% C.I. --1 to 660]), and odds ratios of 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.76) for 1 hospital stay and 1.45 (95% CI, 1.03 to 2.03) for 1 SNF stay. These associations did not vary by BMI category. After additional adjustment for multi-morbidity and functional status, associations of weight loss with all four outcomes were no longer significant. In conclusion, 5% weight loss among older women is not associated with increased THC and outpatient costs, hospitalization, and SNF utilization, irrespective of BMI category after accounting for multimorbidity and impaired functional status that accompany weight loss.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) is supported by National Institutes of Health funding. The National Institute on Aging (NIA) provides support under the following grant numbers: R01 AG005407, R01 AR35582, R01 AR35583, R01 AR35584, R01 AG005394, R01 AG027574, and R01 AG027576. The funding agencies had no direct role in the conduct of the study; the collection, management, analyses and interpretation of the data; or preparation or approval of the manuscript.
© 2018 Schousboe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.