Associations of coffee and tea consumption with lung cancer risk

Jingjing Zhu, Stephanie A. Smith-Warner, Danxia Yu, Xuehong Zhang, William J. Blot, Yong Bing Xiang, Rashmi Sinha, Yikyung Park, Shoichiro Tsugane, Emily White, Woon Puay Koh, Sue K. Park, Norie Sawada, Seiki Kanemura, Yumi Sugawara, Ichiro Tsuji, Kim Robien, Yasutake Tomata, Keun Young Yoo, Jeongseon KimJian Min Yuan, Yu Tang Gao, Nathaniel Rothman, De Ann Lazovich, Sarah K. Abe, Md Shafiur Rahman, Erikka Loftfield, Yumie Takata, Xin Li, Jung Eun Lee, Eiko Saito, Neal D. Freedman, Manami Inoue, Qing Lan, Walter C. Willett, Wei Zheng, Xiao Ou Shu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Associations of coffee and tea consumption with lung cancer risk have been inconsistent, and most lung cancer cases investigated were smokers. Included in this study were over 1.1 million participants from 17 prospective cohorts. Cox regression analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential effect modifications by sex, smoking, race, cancer subtype and coffee type were assessed. After a median 8.6 years of follow-up, 20 280 incident lung cancer cases were identified. Compared with noncoffee and nontea consumption, HRs (95% CIs) associated with exclusive coffee drinkers (≥2 cups/d) among current, former and never smokers were 1.30 (1.15-1.47), 1.49 (1.27-1.74) and 1.35 (1.15-1.58), respectively. Corresponding HRs for exclusive tea drinkers (≥2 cups/d) were 1.16 (1.02-1.32), 1.10 (0.92-1.32) and 1.37 (1.17-1.61). In general, the coffee and tea associations did not differ significantly by sex, race or histologic subtype. Our findings suggest that higher consumption of coffee or tea is associated with increased lung cancer risk. However, these findings should not be assumed to be causal because of the likelihood of residual confounding by smoking, including passive smoking, and change of coffee and tea consumption after study enrolment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2457-2470
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number10
Early online dateNov 16 2020
StatePublished - May 15 2021

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