Background: Racial differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) are likely related to differences in clinical and social factors. The relative contributions of these factors to Black-White differences in premature CVD have not been investigated. Methods: In Black and White adults aged 18 to 30 years at baseline in the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults), the associations of clinical, lifestyle, depression, socioeconomic, and neighborhood factors across young adulthood with racial differences in incident premature CVD were evaluated in sex-stratified, multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models using multiply imputed data assuming missing at random. Percent reduction in the β estimate (log-hazard ratio [HR]) for race quantified the contribution of each factor group to racial differences in incident CVD. Results: Among 2785 Black and 2327 White participants followed for a median 33.9 years (25th-75th percentile, 33.7-34.0), Black (versus White) adults had a higher risk of incident premature CVD (Black women: HR, 2.44 [95% CI, 1.71-3.49], Black men: HR, 1.59 [1.20-2.10] adjusted for age and center). Racial differences were not statistically significant after full adjustment (Black women: HR, 0.91 [0.55-1.52], Black men: HR 1.02 [0.70-1.49]). In women, the largest magnitude percent reduction in the β estimate for race occurred with adjustment for clinical (87%), neighborhood (32%), and socioeconomic (23%) factors. In men, the largest magnitude percent reduction in the β estimate for race occurred with an adjustment for clinical (64%), socioeconomic (50%), and lifestyle (34%) factors. Conclusions: In CARDIA, the significantly higher risk for premature CVD in Black versus White adults was statistically explained by adjustment for antecedent multilevel factors. The largest contributions to racial differences were from clinical and neighborhood factors in women, and clinical and socioeconomic factors in men.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|State||Published - Jul 19 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) is conducted and supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (HHSN268201800005I & HHSN268201800007I), Northwestern University (HHSN268201800003I), University of Minnesota (HHSN268201800006I), and Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (HHSN268201800004I). Research reported in this publication was supported, in part, by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute grant K23HL157766 (to Dr Shah) and the National Institutes of Health, grants P30AG059988 and P30DK092939 (to Dr Khan). Research reported in this publication was also supported, in part, by the American Heart Association (grant 19TPA34890060) to Dr Khan. The funding organizations were not involved in the design or conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. This article has been reviewed by CARDIA for scientific content. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the funding organizations.
© 2022 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.
- cardiovascular diseases
- race factors
- risk factors
- social determinants of health
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't