HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) remains an important route of infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic variants in CCR5 promoter, CCR2, CX 3CRX, and Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) genes were determined in 980 infants from sub-Saharan Africa using real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine association with MTCT. In antiretroviral-naive mother-infant pairs (n = 637), CCRS promoter polymorphisms at positions 59029: A allele vs. G/G [odds ratio (OR): 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04 to 2.48; P = 0.032] and 59356: Ta allele vs. C/C (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41 to 0.96; P = 0.033) and CCR2-180: G allele vs. A/A (OR: 3.32,95% CI: 1.13 to 9.73; P = 0.029) were associated with risk of MTCT. Treatment of HIV-1-infected mothers and infants with single-dose nevirapine or perinatal zidovudine altered but did not eliminate the association of genetic variants with MTCT. CCR5 promoter, CCR2, and CX 3CR1 polymorphisms were associated with risk of MTCT likely through their role as an HIV-1 coreceptor or by modulating the early immune response. Host genetics may continue to alter MTCTwhen short-course interventions that only partially suppress virus are used. These findings will need to be confirmed in validation cohorts with a large number of infected infants.
- Chemokine/ chemokine receptor genotypes
- Mother-to-child transmission