Associations of ω-3 Fatty Acids with Interstitial Lung Disease and Lung Imaging Abnormalities among Adults

John S. Kim, Brian T. Steffen, Anna J. Podolanczuk, Steven M. Kawut, Imre Noth, Ganesh Raghu, Erin D. Michos, Eric A. Hoffman, Gisli Thor Axelsson, Gunnar Gudmundsson, Vilmundur Gudnason, Elias F. Gudmundsson, Rachel A. Murphy, Josée Dupuis, Hanfei Xu, Ramachandran S. Vasan, George T. O'Connor, William S. Harris, Gary M. Hunninghake, R. Graham BarrMichael Y. Tsai, David J. Lederer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, attenuates interstitial lung disease (ILD) in experimental models, but human studies are lacking. We examined associations of circulating levels of DHA and other polyunsaturated fatty acids with hospitalization and death due to ILD over 12 years in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; n = 6,573). We examined cross-sectional associations with CT lung abnormalities in MESA (2000-2012; n = 6,541), the Framingham Heart Study (2005-2011; n = 3,917), and the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-Reykjavik) (2002-2006; n = 1,106). Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were determined from fasting blood samples and extracted from plasma phospholipids (MESA and AGES-Reykjavik) or red blood cell membranes (Framingham Heart Study). Higher DHA levels were associated with a lower risk of hospitalization due to ILD (per standard-deviation increment, adjusted rate ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48, 0.99) and a lower rate of death due to ILD (per standard-deviation increment, adjusted hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.98). Higher DHA was associated with fewer interstitial lung abnormalities on computed tomography (per natural log increment, pooled adjusted odds ratio = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.91). Higher DHA levels were associated with a lower risk of hospitalization and death due to ILD and fewer lung abnormalities on computed tomography in a meta-analysis of data from population-based cohort studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)95-108
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican journal of epidemiology
Volume190
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 4 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Keywords

  • computed tomography
  • fatty acids
  • interstitial lung disease

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