Objective-To identify dietary factors in commercially available canned foods associated with the development of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in dogs. Animals-117 dogs with CaOx uroliths and 174 dogs without urinary tract disease. Procedure-Case dogs were those that developed CaOx uroliths submitted to the Minnesota Urolith Center for quantitative analysis between 1990 and 1992 while fed a commercially available canned diet. Control dogs were those without urinary tract disease evaluated at the same veterinary hospital just prior to or immediately after each case dog. A content-validated multiple-choice questionnaire was mailed to each owner of case and control dogs with the permission of the primary care veterinarian. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions for each dietary component were performed to test the hypothesis that a given factor was associated with CaOx urolith formation. Results-Canned foods with the highest amount of protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, or moisture were associated with a decreased risk of CaOx urolith formation, compared with diets with the lowest amounts. In contrast, canned diets with the highest amount of carbohydrate were associated with an increased risk of CaOx urolith formation. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Feeding canned diets formulated to contain high amounts of protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and moisture and a low amount of carbohydrate may minimize the risk of CaOx urolith formation in dogs.