Association of state-level and individual-level factors with choice making of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities

James Houseworth, Roger J. Stancliffe, Renáta Tichá

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: State-level factors have not been examined in research on choice, despite findings of between-state differences. Aims: To examine both individual and state-level factors associated with choice. Methods and procedures: We used multilevel modeling to explore two choice scales, support-related and everyday choice, based on the National Core Indicators (NCI) data from 2013-14. Outcomes and Results: At the individual level, milder ID, greater mobility, fewer problem behaviors, answering questions independently, communicating verbally, and living in a non-agency setting, particularly independent settings, were associated with more choice for both scales. State-level factors overall explained variance for both scales, but were more strongly associated with support-related choice. A higher proportion of people with IDD living independently within the state predicted more support-related choice. High cost of living within a state predicted less everyday choice. Higher proportion of people living with family and lower proportion being served within a state predicted more everyday choice. Conclusions and implications: These findings suggest further study of choice in relation to policies that: (1) increase independent living for individuals with IDD, and (2) assist individuals/families living in high cost states. State differences on important QOL outcomes are likely to be associated with economic and system-based factorsbeyond individual differences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)77-90
Number of pages14
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
StatePublished - Dec 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This publication was funded by the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research via the following grant: NIDILRR FIR #90IF0101-01-00 . The National Core Indicators Adult Consumer Survey was analyzed with permission from the Human Services Research Institute (HSRI) and The National Association of State Directors of Developmental Disabilities Services (NASDDDS).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd


  • Choice
  • Community living
  • Cost of living
  • Intellectual disability
  • Residence type
  • State factors

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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