Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heterogeneous in symptomatology. Narrowing the clinical phenotype may increase the power to identify risk genes that contribute to particular BD subtypes. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that genetic overlap between schizophrenia (SZ) and BD is higher for BD with a history of manic psychosis. Analyses were conducted using a Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank cohort of 957 bipolar cases (including 333 with history of psychosis during mania, 64 with history of psychosis only during depression, 547 with no history of psychosis, and 13 with unknown history of psychosis) and 778 controls. Polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis was performed by calculating a SZ-PRS for the BD cases and controls, and comparing the calculated SZ risk between different psychosis subgroups and bipolar types. The SZ-PRS was significantly higher for BD-I cases with manic psychosis than BD-I cases with depressive psychosis (Nagelkerke’s R 2 = 0.021; p = 0.045), BD-I cases without psychosis (R 2 = 0.015; p = 0.007), BD-II cases without psychosis (R 2 = 0.014; p = 0.017), and controls (R 2 = 0.065; p = 2 × 10 −13 ). No other significant differences were found. Our results show that BD-I with manic psychosis is genetically more similar to SZ than any other tested BD subgroup. Further investigations on genetics of distinct clinical phenotypes composing major psychoses may help refine the current diagnostic classification system.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was funded by the Marriot Foundation and the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine.