Association of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with blood pressure: The INTERMAP study1-4

Linda M.Oude Griep, Jeremiah Stamler, Queenie Chan, Linda Van Horn, Lyn M. Steffen, Katsuyuki Miura, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Nagako Okuda, Liancheng Zhao, Martha L. Daviglus, Paul Elliott

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32 Scopus citations


Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that fruit consumption may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases through blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects; little is known on the independent effect of raw fruit and fruit juice on BP. Objective: The objective was to quantify associations of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with BP by using cross-sectional data from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) of 4680 men and women aged 40-59 y from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Design: During 4 visits, 8 BP, four 24-h dietary recalls, and two 24-h urine samples were collected. Country-specific multivariate-controlled linear regression coefficients, including adjustment for urinary sodium excretion, were estimated and pooled, weighted by inverse of their variance. Results: The average total raw fruit consumption varied from a mean±SD of 52±65 g/1000 kcal in the United States to 68±70 g/1000 kcal in China. Individual raw fruit intake was not associated with BP in pooled analyses for all countries or in participants from Western countries, although a positive association with diastolic BP was observed in East Asian participants (per 50 g/1000 kcal; 0.37 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.71). Positive relationships with diastolic BP were found for citrus fruit intake inWestern consumers (per 25 g/1000 kcal; 0.47 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.81) and for apple intake in East Asian consumers (0.40 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.78). Among East Asian banana consumers, banana intake was inversely associated with diastolic BP (21.01 mm Hg; 95% CI: -1.88, -0.02). Fruit juice intake, which was negligible in Asia, was not related to BP in Western countries. Conclusion: Consistent associations were not found between raw fruit and fruit juice consumption of individuals and BP. This observational study was registered at as NCT00005271.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1083-1091
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2013


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