Association of prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with adverse birth outcomes and effect modification by socioeconomic factors

Sabah M. Quraishi, Marnie F. Hazlehurst, Christine T. Loftus, Ruby H.N. Nguyen, Emily S. Barrett, Joel D. Kaufman, Nicole R. Bush, Catherine J. Karr, Kaja Z. LeWinn, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Frances A. Tylavsky, Adam A. Szpiro, Daniel A. Enquobahrie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to air pollution has been associated with birth outcomes; however, few studies examined biologically critical exposure windows shorter than trimesters or potential effect modifiers.

OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of prenatal fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), by trimester and in biologically critical windows, with birth outcomes and assess potential effect modifiers.

METHODS: This study used two pregnancy cohorts (CANDLE and TIDES; N = 2099) in the ECHO PATHWAYS Consortium. PM 2.5 was estimated at the maternal residence using a fine-scale spatiotemporal model, averaged over pregnancy, trimesters, and critical windows (0-2 weeks, 10-12 weeks, and last month of pregnancy). Outcomes were preterm birth (PTB, <37 completed weeks of gestation), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and continuous birthweight. We fit multivariable adjusted linear regression models for birthweight and Poisson regression models (relative risk, RR) for PTB and SGA. Effect modification by socioeconomic factors (maternal education, household income, neighborhood deprivation) and infant sex were examined using interaction terms.

RESULTS: Overall, 9% of births were PTB, 10.4% were SGA, and mean term birthweight was 3268 g (SD = 558.6). There was no association of PM 2.5 concentration with PTB or SGA. Lower birthweight was associated with higher PM 2.5 averaged over pregnancy (β -114.2, 95%CI -183.2, -45.3), during second (β -52.9, 95%CI -94.7, -11.2) and third (β -45.5, 95%CI -85.9, -5.0) trimesters, and the month prior to delivery (β -30.5, 95%CI -57.6, -3.3). Associations of PM 2.5 with likelihood of SGA and lower birthweight were stronger among male infants (p-interaction ≤0.05) and in those with lower household income (p-interaction = 0.09).

CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this multi city U.S. birth cohort study support previous reports of inverse associations of birthweight with higher PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy. Findings also suggest possible modification of this association by infant sex and household income.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number113571
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume212
Issue numberPt E
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests: Adam Szpiro reports financial support was provided by University of Washington. Adam Szpiro reports a relationship with Health Effects Institute that includes: consulting or advisory. Adam Szpiro reports a relationship with Sonoma Technology Inc that includes: consulting or advisory. All other authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships.This work is a product of the ECHO PATHWAYS Consortium funded by NIH grants 1UG3OD023271-01 and 4UH3OD023271. CANDLE was also funded by the Urban Child Institute. TIDES is funded by NIH grants R01ES01686, 1 R01 ES25169, R01ES016863-02S4, and 3R01ES025169-04S1. This publication was developed under a STAR research assistance agreements, No. RD831697 (MESA Air) and RD-83830001 (MESA Air Next Stage), awarded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It has not been formally reviewed by the EPA. The views expressed in this document are solely those of the authors and the EPA does not endorse any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication. This research was also supported by P01AG055367 from the National Institute of Aging and by R01ES025888 the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). This work was supported in part by UW NIEHS sponsored Biostatistics, Epidemiologic and Bioinformatic Training in Environmental Health (BEBTEH) Training Grant: NIEHS T32ES015459. Lastly, the research reported in this publication was supported by the University of Washington EDGE Center of the National Institutes of Health under award number P30ES007033. This article was prepared while S.M.Q. was employed at the University of Washington. The opinions expressed in this article are the author's own and do not reflect the view of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Health and Human Services, or the United States government.

Funding Information:
The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests: Adam Szpiro reports financial support was provided by University of Washington . Adam Szpiro reports a relationship with Health Effects Institute that includes: consulting or advisory. Adam Szpiro reports a relationship with Sonoma Technology Inc that includes: consulting or advisory. All other authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships.

Funding Information:
This work is a product of the ECHO PATHWAYS Consortium funded by NIH grants 1UG3OD023271-01 and 4UH3OD023271 . CANDLE was also funded by the Urban Child Institute . TIDES is funded by NIH grants R01ES01686 , 1 R01 ES25169 , R01ES016863-02S4 , and 3R01ES025169-04S1 . This publication was developed under a STAR research assistance agreements, No. RD831697 (MESA Air) and RD-83830001 (MESA Air Next Stage), awarded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It has not been formally reviewed by the EPA. The views expressed in this document are solely those of the authors and the EPA does not endorse any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication. This research was also supported by P01AG055367 from the National Institute of Aging and by R01ES025888 the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) . This work was supported in part by UW NIEHS sponsored Biostatistics, Epidemiologic and Bioinformatic Training in Environmental Health (BEBTEH) Training Grant: NIEHS T32ES015459 . Lastly, the research reported in this publication was supported by the University of Washington EDGE Center of the National Institutes of Health under award number P30ES007033 . This article was prepared while S.M.Q. was employed at the University of Washington . The opinions expressed in this article are the author's own and do not reflect the view of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Health and Human Services, or the United States government.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022

Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Birth outcomes
  • Birthweight
  • Effect modification
  • Fine particulate matter
  • Prenatal exposure
  • Preterm birth
  • Humans
  • Fetal Growth Retardation
  • Male
  • Premature Birth/chemically induced
  • Air Pollution/adverse effects
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Pregnancy
  • Birth Weight
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/chemically induced
  • Air Pollutants/analysis
  • Female
  • Particulate Matter/analysis
  • Maternal Exposure/adverse effects
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Cohort Studies

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

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