Previous studies have suggested a relationship between reproductive history, pregnancy and birth factors, and the risk of neuroblastoma. We conducted a case-control telephone interview study that included a total of 504 children under the age of 19 years with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma identified by two national collaborative clinical trials groups, the Children's Cancer Group and the Pediatric Oncology Group. A total of 504 controls, matched to cases on age, were identified by random digit dialing. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the matched odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) with adjustment for household income, and maternal race and education. In addition, case subgroups defined by age at diagnosis, tumour MYCN oncogene amplification status, and stage were evaluated. A suggestive pattern of increased risk was seen for a greater number of prior pregnancies, history of previous miscarriages and induced abortions, with nearly a twofold increase in risk for two or more prior induced abortions (OR = 1.9, 95% CI [1.0,3.7]). No association was found for the following diseases or conditions during pregnancy: hepatitis, rubella, measles, mumps, chickenpox, mononucleosis, vaccinations, morning sickness, pre-eclampsia, bleeding, proteinuria, anaemia, urinary tract infections, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease and diabetes. A weak association was found for hypertension during pregnancy. Several labour and delivery factors were related to an increased risk, including threatened miscarriage, anaesthetic during labour (specifically epidural) and caesarean delivery. We found associations between premature delivery (<33 weeks: OR = 1.9, 95% CI [0.7,4.8]), very low birthweight (<1500 g: OR = 2.6, 95% CI [0.7,10.3]) and risk of neuroblastoma. There was no consistent pattern of increased risk found for most factors within subgroups defined by age at diagnosis, stage or MYCN status.