Purpose:To examine the association between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort.Methods:Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a multicenter, prospective cohort study designed to identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease in four ethnic groups. Six thousand eight hundred and fourteen participants of White, African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Chinese descent, aged 45-84 years, were recruited, with those found to have cardiovascular disease excluded. Our study population included all Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants with baseline polyunsaturated fatty acid measurements and retinal photography at Examination 5 (n = 3,772). Fundus photographs were assessed for AMD using a standard grading protocol. Relative risk regression (log link) determined associations between polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and AMD.Results:There was a significant association between increasing docosahexaenoic acid levels and increasing docosahexaenoic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid levels with reduced risk for early AMD (n = 214 participants with early AMD, of which n = 99 (46.3%) are non-White). Eicosapentaenoic acid levels alone were not significantly associated with AMD.Conclusion:Our analysis suggests increasing levels of docosahexaenoic acid are associated with reduced risk for early AMD in a multiethnic cohort. This represents the first racially diverse study demonstrating an association between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMD risk.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Supported by contracts 75N92020D00001, HHSN268201500003I, N01-HC-95159, 75N92020D00005, N01-HC-95160, 75N92020D00002, N01-HC-95161, 75N92020D00003, N01-HC-95162, 75N92020D00006, N01-HC-95163, 75N92020D00004, N01-HC-95164, 75N92020D00007, N01-HC-95165, N01-HC-95166, N01-HC-95167, N01-HC-95168, and N01-HC-95169 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and by Grants UL1-TR-000040, UL1-TR-001079, and UL1-TR-001420 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS). The authors thank the other investigators, the staff, and the participants of the MESA study for their valuable contributions. A full list of participating MESA investigators and institutions can be found at http://www.mesa-nhlbi.org .
© 2022 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.
- Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
- age-related macular degeneration
- omega-3 fatty acids