Association of nut consumption with CVD risk factors in young to middle-aged adults: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

So Yun Yi, Lyn M. Steffen, Xia Zhou, James M. Shikany, David R. Jacobs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background and aims: Few studies have examined long-term associations of walnut, other nut, and no nut consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Results from prospective studies with long-term follow-up can provide further evidence for dietary guideline messaging to consume nuts. Therefore, we examined the associations of walnut, other nut, and no nut consumption with diet quality and CVD risk factors over 30 years of follow-up. Methods and results: Data were analyzed from 3092 young adults enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Dietary intake, including walnuts and other nuts, was assessed 3 times over 20 years. CVD risk factors were measured at multiple exams. General linear regression evaluated the associations of walnut, other nut, and no nut consumption with CVD risk factors over 30 years (Y30) of follow-up. The 20-year cumulative mean intake of walnuts (0.74 oz/d), other nuts (1.6 oz/d), or no nut consumption was differentially associated with HEI-2015 and CVD risk factors by Y30. Generally, walnut consumers had significantly higher HEI-2015, lower body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and triglyceride concentration, and gained less weight since baseline than other nut consumers (p ≤ 0.05 for all). Further, walnut consumers had lower fasting blood glucose than no nut consumers (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Study findings that walnut and other nut consumption was associated with better CVD risk factors and diet quality aligns with the 2020–2025 US. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation to consume nuts, such as walnuts, within the context of a healthy diet.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA) is supported by contracts HHSN268201800003I , HHSN268201800004I , HHSN268201800005I , HHSN268201800006I , and HHSN268201800007I from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) . Other funding was R01-HL-084099 from NHLBI (Dr. Myriam Fornage) and the California Walnut Commission (Dr. Lyn Steffen). This report was reviewed for scientific content by the CARDIA publications committee, on which there is an NIH representative. The California Walnut Commission had no role in writing or reviewing this paper.

Funding Information:
So Yun Yi: no conflicts of interest ; Lyn M. Steffen received a grant from the California Walnut Commission which partially supported manuscript preparation; Xia Zhou: no conflicts of interest; James M. Shikany: no conflicts of interest; David R. Jacobs: no conflicts of interest.

Funding Information:
The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA) is supported by contracts HHSN268201800003I, HHSN268201800004I, HHSN268201800005I, HHSN268201800006I, and HHSN268201800007I from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Other funding was R01-HL-084099 from NHLBI (Dr. Myriam Fornage) and the California Walnut Commission (Dr. Lyn Steffen). This report was reviewed for scientific content by the CARDIA publications committee, on which there is an NIH representative. The California Walnut Commission had no role in writing or reviewing this paper.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors

Keywords

  • CVD risk Factors
  • Healthy diet
  • Nuts
  • Obesity
  • Observational study
  • Walnuts

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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