Using liver magnetic resonance imaging (R2-MRI) to quantify liver iron content (LIC), we conducted a prospective cohort study to determine the association between iron overload and adult allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes. Patients received pretransplant ferritin measurements; patients with ferritin >500 ng/mL underwent R2-MRI. Patients were defined as no iron overload (N = 28) and iron overload (LIC >1.8 mg/g; N = 60). Median LIC in the iron-overload group was 4.3 mg/g (range, 1.9-25.4). There was no difference in the 1-year probability of overall survival, nonrelapse mortality, relapse, acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease, organ failure, infections, or hepatic veno-occlusive disease between groups. We also found no difference in the cumulative incidence of a composite end point of nonrelapse mortality, any infection, organ failure, or hepatic veno-occlusive disease (1-year cumulative incidence, 71% vs 80%; P =.44). In multivariate analyses, iron-overload status did not impact risks of overall mortality (relative risk = 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-5.9; P =.08). In conclusion, we found no association between pretransplant iron overload and allogeneic HCT outcomes. Future studies in this population should use LIC to define iron overload instead of ferritin.