Association of Health Insurance, Geography, and Race and Ethnicity with Disparities in Receipt of Recommended Postpartum Care in the US

Julia D. Interrante, Lindsay K. Admon, Caitlin Carroll, Carrie Henning-Smith, Phoebe Chastain, Katy B. Kozhimannil

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7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Importance: Little is known about the quality of postpartum care or disparities in the content of postpartum care associated with health insurance, rural or urban residency, and race and ethnicity. Objectives: To examine receipt of recommended postpartum care content and to describe variations across health insurance type, rural or urban residence, and race and ethnicity. Design, Settings, and Participants: This cross-sectional survey of patients with births from 2016 to 2019 used data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (43 states and 2 jurisdictions). A population-based sample of patients conducted by state and local health departments in partnership with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were surveyed about maternal experiences 2 to 6 months after childbirth (mean weighted response rate, 59.9%). Patients who attended a postpartum visit were assessed for content at that visit. Analyses were performed November 2021 to July 2022. Exposures: Medicaid or private health insurance, rural or urban residence, and race and ethnicity (non-Hispanic White or racially minoritized groups). Main Outcomes and Measures: Receipt of 2 postpartum care components recommended by national quality standards (depression screening and contraceptive counseling), and/or other recommended components (smoking screening, abuse screening, birth spacing counseling, eating and exercise discussions) with estimated risk-adjusted predicted probabilities and percentage-point (pp) differences. Results: Among the 138073 patient-respondents, most (59.5%) were in the age group from 25 to 34 years old; 59726 (weighted percentage, 40%) were insured by Medicaid; 27721 (15%) were rural residents; 9718 (6%) were Asian, 24735 (15%) were Black, 22210 (15%) were Hispanic, 66323 (60%) were White, and fewer than 1% were Indigenous (Native American/Alaska Native) individuals. Receipt of both depression screening and contraceptive counseling both significantly lower for Medicaid-insured patients (1.2 pp lower than private; 95% CI, -2.1 to -0.3), rural residents (1.3 pp lower than urban; 95% CI, -2.2 to -0.4), and people of racially minoritized groups (0.8 pp lower than White individuals; 95% CI, -1.6 to -0.1). The highest receipt of these components was among privately insured White urban residents (80%; 95% CI, 79% to 81%); the lowest was among privately insured racially minoritized rural residents (75%; 95% CI, 72% to 78%). Receipt of all other components was significantly higher for Medicaid-insured patients (6.1 pp; 95% CI, 5.2 to 7.0), rural residents (1.1 pp; 95% CI, 0.1 to 2.0), and people of racially minoritized groups (8.5 pp; 95% CI, 7.7 to 9.4). The highest receipt of these components was among Medicaid-insured racially minoritized urban residents (34%; 95% CI, 33% to 35%), the lowest was among privately insured White urban residents (19%; 95% CI, 18% to 19%). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional survey of postpartum individuals in the US suggest that inequities in postpartum care content were extensive and compounded for patients with multiple disadvantaged identities. Examining only 1 dimension of identity may understate the extent of disparities. Future studies should consider the content of postpartum care visits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere223292
JournalJAMA Health Forum
Volume3
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 14 2022

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