Association of e-Cigarette Use with Discontinuation of Cigarette Smoking among Adult Smokers Who Were Initially Never Planning to Quit

Karin A. Kasza, Kathryn C. Edwards, Heather L. Kimmel, Andrew Anesetti-Rothermel, K. Michael Cummings, Raymond S. Niaura, Akshika Sharma, Erin M. Ellis, Rebecca Jackson, Carlos Blanco, Marushka L. Silveira, Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Andrew Hyland

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27 Scopus citations

Abstract

Importance: Cigarette smokers not planning to quit are often overlooked in population studies evaluating the risk-benefit potential of electronic nicotine delivery products (e-cigarettes). Objective: To evaluate whether e-cigarette use is associated with discontinuing cigarette smoking among smokers who were initially never planning to quit. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used US nationally representative data from the longitudinal Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (waves 2-5 conducted between October 2014 and November 2019), with participants evaluated in 3 pairs of interviews. Adult daily cigarette smokers initially not using e-cigarettes and with no plans to ever quit smoking for good (2489 observations from 1600 individuals) were included. Exposures: e-Cigarette use (ie, daily use, nondaily use, or no use) at follow-up interview among smokers not using e-cigarettes at baseline interview. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were discontinuation of cigarette smoking (ie, no cigarette smoking) and discontinuation of daily cigarette smoking (ie, no daily cigarette smoking) at follow-up interview. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between the exposure and each outcome, controlling for demographic characteristics and cigarettes smoked per day at baseline interview; all estimates were weighted. Results: The weighted population of adult daily cigarette smokers who were not using e-cigarettes and had no plans to ever quit smoking, based on data from 1600 participants, was 56.1% male (95% CI, 53.4%-58.7%), 10.1% Hispanic (95% CI, 8.2%-12.3%), 10.1% non-Hispanic Black (95% CI, 8.7%-11.7%), 75.6% non-Hispanic White (95% CI, 72.9%-78.2%), and 4.2% of other non-Hispanic race (95% CI, 3.3%-5.4%); 29.3% were aged 55 to 69 years (95% CI, 26.2%-32.6%), 8.9% were aged 70 years or older (95% CI, 6.8%-11.5%), 36.8% did not graduate from high school (95% CI, 34.1%-39.6%), 55.2% had an annual household income of less than $25000 (95% CI, 52.3%-58.1%), 37.6% smoked 20 to 29 cigarettes per day (95% CI, 34.7%-40.6%), and 12.7% smoked 30 or more cigarettes per day (95% CI, 10.9%-14.7%). Overall, 6.2% of the population (95% CI, 5.0%-7.5%) discontinued cigarette smoking. Discontinuation rates were higher among those who used e-cigarettes daily (28.0%; 95% CI, 15.2%-45.9%) compared with not at all (5.8%; 95% CI, 4.7%-7.2%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.11; 95% CI, 3.14-20.97). Furthermore, 10.7% (95% CI, 9.1%-12.5%) discontinued daily cigarette smoking, with higher rates of discontinuation observed among those who used e-cigarettes daily (45.5%; 95% CI, 27.4%-64.9%) compared with not at all (9.9%; 95% CI, 8.2%-11.8%; aOR, 9.67; 95% CI, 4.02-23.25). Nondaily e-cigarette use was not associated with cigarette discontinuation (aOR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.08-3.35) or daily cigarette discontinuation (aOR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.44-2.09). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, daily e-cigarette use was associated with greater odds of cigarette discontinuation among smokers who initially had no plans to ever quit smoking. These findings support the consideration of smokers who are not planning to quit when evaluating the risk-benefit potential of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in the population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number40880
JournalJAMA Network Open
Volume4
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 28 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Cummings reported providing expert testimony on the health effects of smoking and tobacco industry tactics in lawsuits filed against the tobacco industry. He has also received payment as a consultant to Pfizer Inc for services on an external advisory panel to assess ways to improve smoking cessation delivery in health care settings. Dr Niaura reported serving as a paid consultant to the Government of Canada via a contract with Industrial Economics Inc, receiving an honorarium for a virtual meeting from Pfizer Inc, and serving as an unpaid grant reviewer for the Foundation for a Smoke Free World. No other disclosures were reported.

Funding Information:
Funding/Support: This manuscript is supported with federal funds from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, and the Center for Tobacco Products, US Food and Drug Administration, US Department of Health and Human Services, under contract to Westat (contracts HHSN271201100027C and HHSN271201600001C).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

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