Associations between CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants and smoking behaviors exist; however, the association with smoking abstinence is less understood, particularly that among African Americans. In 1,295 African Americans enrolled in two clinical trials, we investigated the association between CHRNA5-A3-B4 and smoking abstinence. The rs2056527(A) allele was associated with lower abstinence with active pharmacotherapy (during treatment: odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, P < 0.001; end of treatment (EOT): OR = 0.55, P = 0.004), or with nicotine gum alone (during treatment: OR = 0.31, P < 0.001; EOT: OR = 0.51, P = 0.02), but not significantly with bupropion, although similar directions and magnitudes were observed (during treatment: OR = 0.54, P = 0.05; EOT: OR = 0.59, P = 0.08). In addition, the rs588765(T) allele was associated with abstinence with gum during treatment (OR = 2.31, P < 0.01). The SNP rs16969968 occurred at a low frequency and was not consistently associated with abstinence. CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants were not associated with tobacco consumption, and adjustments for smoking behaviors did not alter the associations with smoking abstinence. Together, our data suggest that among African Americans, CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants are not associated with baseline smoking but can influence smoking abstinence during active pharmacotherapy.