Vesicle size can be a very sensitive modulator of protein-membrane association. In addition, reactions at the collisional limit may be characteristic of many types of protein-membrane or protein-receptor interactions. To probe these effects quantitatively, we analyzed the association of blood clotting factor Va light chain (Va-LC) with phospholipid vesicles of 15-150-nm radius. The number of protein binding sites per vesicle was approximately proportional to vesicle surface area. Association rates approached the collisional limit, and the activation energy for the association reaction was 4.5 ± 0.5 kcal/mol. In agreement with diffusional theory for this type of interaction at the collisional limit, the observed association rate constant for filling all sites was approximately proportional to the inverse of vesicle radius. This general property has important implications for many systems such as blood coagulation including possible slower association rates and higher Km values for reactions involving whole cells relative to those obtained for phospholipid vesicles. Dissociation rate constants for reactions that are near the collisional limit should also be proportional to the inverse of vesicle size if diffusional parameters are the only factors influencing dissociation. However, Va-LC bound to small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs, ≤15-nm radius) gave slower dissociation rates than Va-LC bound to large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs, ≥35-nm radius). This indicated a change in KI, the intrinsic protein-phospholipid affinity constant for LUVs vs SUVs. The cumulative effect of association and dissociation rates resulted in higher affinity of Va-LC for SUVs than LUVs under equilibrium conditions. The latter was corroborated by competition binding studies. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of both rate constants indicated an entirely entropy-driven binding to LUVs but a largely enthalpy-driven binding to SUVs. Interactions which are largely entropic are thought to be ionic in nature. The differences observed between binding to LUVs and SUVs may reflect thermodynamic differences between these types of phospholipid structures.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|State||Published - 1987|