Association between respiratory sinus arrhythmia and reductions in startle responding in three independent samples

Stephanie M. Gorka, Sarah Kate McGowan, Miranda L. Campbell, Brady D. Nelson, Casey Sarapas, Jeffrey R. Bishop, Stewart A. Shankman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Evidence suggests that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) may be an important indicator of physiological flexibility. However, few studies have examined the relation between RSA and defensive habituation, a process contingent on physiological flexibility. In three independent samples, habituation was defined as the time course of 9 startle responses. In Sample one and two, startle was recorded (1) while shock electrodes were attached to participants' and (2) before a threat-of-shock task. In Sample three, startle was recorded without these two components. In the first two samples, startle magnitude significantly decreased over time but in Sample three, startle only decreased at a trend level. Further, low RSA was associated with less of a reduction in startle magnitude over time within the first two samples, but was unrelated to startle reduction in the third. This suggests that low RSA is associated with less habituation to contextual anxiety, which may reflect difficulties regulating anxiety.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)334-341
Number of pages8
JournalBiological Psychology
Volume93
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This project was supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grant R21MH080689 (Shankman) and a UIC Chancellor's Discovery Fund for Multidisciplinary Research (Shankman and Bishop). Dr. Bishop is supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grant K08MH083888 . We would like to thank Stephen W. Porges, Ph.D., for his assistance in this project and guidance on the measurement and calculation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia.

Keywords

  • Habituation
  • Respiratory sinus arrhythmia
  • Startle

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