Association between Periodontitis Extent, Severity, and Progression Rate with Systemic Diseases and Smoking: A Retrospective Study

Georgios S. Chatzopoulos, Ziou Jiang, Nicholas Marka, Larry F. Wolff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between extent, severity (stage), and rate of progression (grade) of periodontitis with systemic diseases as well as smoking using a large database. Methods: Patients’ records identified in the BigMouth Dental Data Repository with a periodontal diagnosis based on the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions were evaluated. Patients were further categorized based on extent, severity, and rate of progression. Data were extracted from patients’ electronic health records including demographic characteristics, dental procedural codes, and self-reported medical conditions, as well as the number of missing teeth. Results: A total of 2069 complete records were ultimately included in the analysis. Males were more likely to have generalized periodontitis and stage III or IV periodontitis. Older individuals were more likely diagnosed with grade B and stage III or IV periodontitis. Individuals with generalized disease, grade C, and stage IV demonstrated a significantly higher number of missing teeth. Higher numbers of tooth loss reported during supportive periodontal treatment were noted in generalized disease and stage IV periodontitis. Multiple sclerosis and smoking were significantly associated with grade C periodontitis. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this retrospective study that utilized the BigMouth dental data repository, smokers were significantly associated with rapid progression of periodontitis (grade C). Gender, age, number of missing teeth, and number of tooth loss during supportive periodontal treatment were associated with disease characteristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number814
JournalJournal of Personalized Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health Award Number UL1-TR002494 and COHRI-BM-DR25. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. This research was further supported by a University of Minnesota School of Dentistry, Division of Periodontology grant (L.F.W.).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • epidemiology
  • oral health
  • oral-systemic disease
  • periodontal disease
  • tooth loss

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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