Background: Assess the association between digoxin use and gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in a multicenter continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) cohort. Methods: Patients implanted with continuous flow LVADs with data on GIB and digoxin use from two centers were included in the analysis (n = 649). GIB events were captured up to 2 years of follow-up. Digoxin use was defined as digoxin prescribed at discharge or within the first 3 months after LVAD implantation. A negative binomial regression model was performed to determine the association between digoxin use and number of GIB events over the follow-up period. Results: Mean age of the cohort was 57 years (±14) and 45% (293/649) were bridge to transplant (BTT). Digoxin was prescribed in 33% of patients. Digoxin use was associated with an unadjusted 32% reduction in the incidence of rate of all cause GIB (IRR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99, p = 0.049). After adjusting for age, sex, Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) profile, renal function, and implanting center there was still a 34% reduction in the incidence rate (IRR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45-0.99, p = 0.048). When limiting the analysis to those with likely arteriovenous malformation associated GIB, the association strengthened (unadjusted: IRR 0.48, 95 % CI 0.26-0.89, p = 0.02, adjusted: IRR 0.47, 95 % CI 0.25-0.9, p = 0.022). Conclusions: In this multicenter study, inclusive of contemporary devices, digoxin use was associated with reduced GIB events. Prospective data will be required to confirm this association.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study is funded by University of Minnesota departmental funds.
- GI bleed
- angiopoietin 2 (Ang2)
- arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)
- hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1a)
- left ventricular assistive device (LVAD)