Synoestropsis is the only Neotropical representative of the Macronematinae tribe Polymorphanisini. Adults of Polymorphanisini are recognized by the absence of maxillary and labial palpi. Currently, Synoestropsis contains 10 described species recorded from northeast Argentina to southern Mexico. Until now, the larval stages of only one species were described, Synoestropsis furcata Flint. The goals of the present work are to associate larvae and adults of Synoestropsis species by rearing and mDNA sequence association, to describe the immature stages, and to present an identification key. Four associations were made using mDNA congruence (Synoestropsis pedicillata, Synoestropsis obliqua, Synoestropsis grisoli, and S. furcata) and two of these were corroborated by rearing immatures under laboratory conditions (S. grisoli and S. furcata); one species was associated indirectly by geographic occurrence (S. obliqua). A new diagnosis is proposed for the genus, including standardized descriptions for all species now known. Characters that can be used to diagnose the species are the shape of the apicoventral region of the foretrochantin, the presence and arrangement of foretrochantin setae, and the shape of the forecoxa and forefemur.
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We are thankful to Dra. Neusa Hamada from the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) for her contributions during the course of this work, especially her assistance with the collection of material. Dr. Frederico Falcão Salles, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES/CEUNES), Dr. Denis Nogueira, Universidade do Estado do Mato Grosso (UNEMAT), and Dr. Alexandre Somavilla, INPA, graciously assisted by collecting specimens to improve the results obtained. We thank Dra. Julieta Sganga and Dra. Elisa Angrisano, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), and Dr. Arturo Roig Alsina, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia,” for their cordiality and support during the senior author's visit to their university and museum, and for loaning material. Appreciation is expressed to Dr. Jean Legrand and Dr. Tomasz Hflejt for their help in obtaining type material of some species. M. Sc. Lívia Nanam, INPA, is thanked for her assistance with producing the map. Financial support was provided by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoa de Nível Superior (CAPES) and the projects “Biologia e taxonomia de Trichoptera na Amazônia Central” (FAPEAM/FIXAM/AM process number 062.02520/2014); “Taxonomia de Trichoptera (Insecta), com ênfase em associação molecular do gênero de larvas e adultos, no estado do Amazonas” (CNPq process number 150423/2013-6); “Sistemática Integrada de Insetos Aquáticos com ênfase em Simuliidae (Diptera) da América do Sul” (INPA/MCTI/CNPq/PPI, process number 307849/2014-7). We also thank to the Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio) by the collection licenses (numbers 24303-1, 10883-1) This support is gratefully acknowledged.
© 2018 Elsevier GmbH
- DNA barcoding
- Immature rearing
- Integrative taxonomy