Assessment of metabolic stability using the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver S9 fraction

Karla Johanning, Gregg Hancock, Beate Escher, Adebayo Adekola, Mary Jo Bernhard, Christina Cowan-Ellsberry, Jeanne Domoradzki, Scott Dyer, Curtis Eickhoff, Michelle Embry, Susan Erhardt, Patrick Fitzsimmons, Marlies Halder, James Hill, Dustin Holden, Rebecca Johnson, Sibylle Rutishauser, Helmut Segner, Irvin Schultz, John Nichols

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56 Scopus citations


Standard protocols are given for assessing metabolic stability in rainbow trout using the liver S9 fraction. These protocols describe the isolation of S9 fractions from trout livers, evaluation of metabolic stability using a substrate depletion approach, and expression of the result as in vivo intrinsic clearance. Additional guidance is provided on the care and handling of test animals, design and interpretation of preliminary studies, and development of analytical methods. Although initially developed to predict metabolism impacts on chemical accumulation by fish, these procedures can be used to support a broad range of scientific and risk assessment activities including evaluation of emerging chemical contaminants and improved interpretation of toxicity testing results. These protocols have been designed for rainbow trout and can be adapted to other species as long as species-specific considerations are modified accordingly (e.g., fish maintenance and incubation mixture temperature). Rainbow trout is a cold-water species. Protocols for other species (e.g., carp, a warm-water species) can be developed based on these procedures as long as the specific considerations are taken into account.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number14.10
JournalCurrent Protocols in Toxicology
Issue numberSUPPL.53
StatePublished - Aug 2012


  • Cyp450
  • Fish
  • In vitro assay
  • Liver S9 fraction
  • Metabolism
  • Phase I and II metabolism enzymes
  • Rainbow trout


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