Abnormal fetal growth patterns are associated with higher rates of neonatal morbidity. Measurement of anthropometric parameters immediately after birth, prior to the onset of potential neonatal symptoms, allows the physician to make an assessment as to which infants are at high risk. In general, a two-tiered approach will allow the physician to make the distinction between high- and low-risk infants. First, the standard one-factor anthropometrics--weight, length, and occipitofrontal head circumference--are plotted on curves that are appropriate for the population. In the vast majority of cases, these measurements give enough information regarding neonatal risk. When the standard measurements conflict with the clinical history or are disproportionate, the use of specialty one-factor anthropometrics, and especially two-factor body proportion assessments represent the second tier of assessment that can give greater insights into the etiology of abnormal fetal growth and can further define the groups at risk for neonatal sequelae.