Given the relationship between depression and smoking, we compared the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) and 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) in assessing depressive symptoms among African American light smokers in a clinical trial of bupropion. Of 539 participants, 21.3 percent reported significant depressive symptoms on the PHQ-2, 31.0 percent screened positive per CESD-10, 36.8 percent reported symptoms on either, and 15.6 percent screened positive on both (r = 0.47, p <.001). Having depressive symptoms was associated with less education, decreased positive affect and social support, and greater levels of negative affect and perceived stress. Cessation treatment should assess depression and address these symptoms.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research is conducted at the University of Kansas School of Medicine and Swope Health Services with support from the National Institutes of Health (R01 CA091912; PI: Lisa Sanderson Cox). Dr Ahluwalia is funded by the National Institute for Minority Health Disparities (NIMHD/NIH - 1P60MD003422). This is a registered clinical trial: NCT00666978.
- nicotine dependence
- psychological distress
- smoking cessation