Assessing war trauma in refugees: Properties of the comprehensive trauma inventory-104

Michael Hollifield, Teddy D. Warner, Janis Jenkins, Nityamo Sinclair-Lian, Barry Krakow, Valorie Eckert, Pary Karadaghi, Joseph Westermeyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


In this article, the authors describe the properties of the Comprehensive Trauma Inventory-104 (CTI-104), developed and designed empirically to improve assessment of traumatic war-related events. The mean number of events reported by 252 community dwelling Kurdish and Vietnamese refugees was 32 (SD = 27) out of the 104 items. Internal and test-retest reliability was excellent, and the validity of the CTI-104 as a measure of war trauma was supported by its high correlation with standard measures of known outcomes of trauma. The CTI-104 is reliable and valid, and assesses a broader range of traumatic war-related events in a broader range of refugees than currently available instruments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)527-540
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Traumatic Stress
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2006
Externally publishedYes


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