Assessing the prevalence trend of childhood pneumonia associated with indoor air pollution in Pakistan

Lubna Naz, Umesh Ghimire

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10 Scopus citations


The indoor air pollution (IAP) is one of the leading risk factors of childhood pneumonia in developing countries. This study makes the first attempt to examine the prevalence trend of pneumonia among under-five children in Pakistan in association with IAP-related factors, using bivariate and multivariate statistical methods. Three waves of Pakistan Demographic Health Survey for 2006–2007, 2012–2013, and 2017–2018 were used. Our study findings showed a steady decline in the prevalence of pneumonia synchronized with the decreased use of polluting fuel during the last decade (2006–2017). In bivariate regression, odd ratios of childhood pneumonia were 1.27 and 1.21 times higher in overcrowded houses in 2006–2007 and 2012–2013, respectively, and 1.25 times higher in families relying on biomass for cooking in 2017–2018. In the multivariate model, polluting fuel and overcrowded homes had higher adjusted odd ratios of pneumonia in all survey years, and children age 37–48 months, older mothers, and large birth sized children had lower AOR of pneumonia in 2006–2007 and 2012–2013. Countrywide promotion of IAP mitigation measures such as sponsoring cleaner fuels, separate place for cooking, and lessening home overcrowding may play a vital role in alleviating the prevalence of childhood pneumonia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44540-44551
Number of pages12
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number35
StatePublished - Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • Biomass fuel
  • Bivariate
  • Indoor air pollution
  • Overcrowding
  • Pneumonia


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