Strategic use of oral toxicants could allow for practical and sustainable control schemes for the invasive common carp (Cyprinus carpio, or ‘carp’) if a toxicant selectively targeted carp and not native species. In this study, we incorporated antimycin-a (ANT-A), a known fish toxicant, into a corn-based bait and conducted a series of experiments to determine its toxicity, leaching rate, and species-specificity. Our results showed that ANT-A was lethal to carp at doses ≥ 4 mg/kg and that the amount of ANT-A that leached out of the bait in 72 h was not lethal to carp or bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Species-specificity trials were conducted in 227 L tanks, in which carp were stocked with three native species representing families that occur sympatrically with carp in our study region: the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill. These trials showed high mortality of carp (46%) and fathead minnows (76%) but no significant mortality of perch or bluegill. Finally, a pond study, which used the same species composition except for fathead minnows, resulted in 37% morality among adult carp and no mortality among perch or bluegill. Our results suggest that corn-based bait that contains ANT-A could be used to selectively control carp in ecosystems dominated by percids or centrarchids, such as lakes across the Great Plains ecoregion of North America, where carp are especially problematic.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgements This project was funded by the Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund (ENRTF) in association with the Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center. Thank you to all who assisted with this study: Joel Putnam, John Tix, Justine Nelson, John Steiner (all from USGS in La Crosse), Kao Vang, and Nick Vang (both from University of Minnesota). We thank our three anonymous reviewers for improving this manuscript with their comments. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017.
- Cyprinus carpio
- Invasive fish