Assessing statistical literacy and statistical reasoning: The reali instrument

Anelise Sabbag, Joan Garfield, Andrew Zieffler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Statistical literacy and statistical reasoning are important learning goals that instructors aim to develop in statistics students. However, there is a lack of clarity regarding the relationship among these learning goals and to what extent they overlap. The REasoning and Literacy Instrument (REALI) was designed to concurrently measure statistical literacy and reasoning. This paper reports the development process of the REALI assessment, which included test blueprint, expert review, item categorization, pilot and field testing, and data analysis to identify what measurement model best represents the constructs of statistical literacy and reasoning given the criteria of fit and parsimony. The results suggested that statistical literacy and reasoning can be measured effectively by the REALI assessment with high score precision.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)141-160
Number of pages20
JournalStatistics Education Research Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Nov 1 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
1. The Statistical Reasoning Assessment (SRA) was developed as part of the ChancePlus Project (Garfield, 1991) and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF Grant MDR-8954626) to evaluate a computer-based statistics curriculum. The SRA is composed of 20 forced-choice items that cover specific types of reasoning and misconceptions related to data, representations of data, statistical measures, uncertainty, sampling, association, and probability (Garfield, 1998, 2003).

Publisher Copyright:
© International Association for Statistical Education.


  • Assessment
  • Evaluation of statistical knowledge
  • Statistical learning goals
  • Statistics education research


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