Assessing organizational implementation context in the education sector: Confirmatory factor analysis of measures of implementation leadership, climate, and citizenship

Aaron R. Lyon, Clayton R. Cook, Eric C. Brown, Jill Locke, Chayna Davis, Mark Ehrhart, Gregory A. Aarons

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53 Scopus citations


Background: A substantial literature has established the role of the inner organizational setting on the implementation of evidence-based practices in community contexts, but very little of this research has been extended to the education sector, one of the most common settings for the delivery of mental and behavioral health services to children and adolescents. The current study examined the factor structure, psychometric properties, and interrelations of an adapted set of pragmatic organizational instruments measuring key aspects of the organizational implementation context in schools: (1) strategic implementation leadership, (2) strategic implementation climate, and (3) implementation citizenship behavior. Method: The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS), Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), and Implementation Citizenship Behavior Scale (ICBS) were adapted by a research team that included the original scale authors and experts in the implementation of evidence-based practices in schools. These instruments were then administered to a geographically representative sample (n = 196) of school-based mental/behavioral health consultants to assess the reliability and structural validity via a series of confirmatory factor analyses. Results: Overall, the original factor structures for the ILS, ICS, and ICBS were confirmed in the current sample. The one exception was poor functioning of the Rewards subscale of the ICS, which was removed in the final ICS model. Correlations among the revised measures, evaluated as part of an overarching model of the organizational implementation context, indicated both unique and shared variance. Conclusions: The current analyses suggest strong applicability of the revised instruments to implementation of evidence-based mental and behavioral practices in the education sector. The one poorly functioning subscale (Rewards on the ICS) was attributed to typical educational policies that do not allow for individual financial incentives to personnel. Potential directions for future expansion, revision, and application of the instruments in schools are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5
JournalImplementation Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 8 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This publication was supported in part by funding from the University of Washington Center for Child and Family Wellbeing. Additional funding was provided by grants K08MH095939 (Lyon) and K01MH100199 (Locke) awarded from the National Institute of Mental Health, as well as R305A160114 (Lyon and Cook) awarded by the Institute of Education Sciences. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health or Institute of Education Sciences.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Author(s).


  • Education
  • Implementation citizenship
  • Implementation climate
  • Implementation leadership
  • Reliability
  • Schools
  • Structural validity


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