Schizophrenia has existed as a distinct disorder for nearly a century, and, ever since this disorder was first described and studied, cognitive impairment has been recognized as a prominent feature. However, the positive symptoms of schizophrenia moved to the forefront of clinical and research attention in the latter half of the twentieth century. With the new movement toward functional recovery in schizophrenia, cognitive dysfunction has become an important treatment target. This shift in focus has been prompted by our evolving knowledge of brain changes associated with schizophrenia and by the mounting body of evidence indicating that cognition is closely related to functional outcome. Cognitive assessments can enhance the evaluation and treatment of all patients with schizophrenia, and clinicians may select from a variety of valid and reliable scales and assessment measures.