The incidence of Armillaria on small woody plants, small woody debris, and root fragments was estimated in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) stands in northeastern Minnesota. Soil core samples 10 cm in diameter, and extending to a depth of either 16 or 25 cm, were collected from 13 stands belonging to three age-classes. Half of the youngest stands had been treated using herbicide. Mycelial fans or rhizomorphs of Armillaria were observed on 13% of the small woody plants and isolated from 8% of them. Including small woody debris and root fragments, 38% of 0-16 cm deep samples had Armillaria. Armillaria was observed on 3% and isolated from 1% of individual substrate units from 0 to 25 cm deep samples. Within a single stand, 0%-67% of the samples and 0%-9% of the individual units had evidence of Armillaria. All but one isolate were Armillaria ostoyae (Romagn.) Herink. Herbicide-treated and untreated red pine stands had similar Armillaria incidence, and there was a trend of incidence inversely related to stand age-class. Large numbers of small woody plants, woody debris, and root fragments were found in red pine stands; varying percentages of these substrates were contributing to the survival of Armillaria and could also be serving as sources of root disease inoculum.