Are work well-being variables distinct? A bifactor model of fulfilling work.

Blake A. Allan, Taewon Kim, Tracie Y. Liu, Rhea L. Owens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The strengths-based inclusive theory of work and psychology of working theory propose that fulfilling work is a key outcome of the vocational intervention. Scholars have further argued that fulfilling work is the holistic experience of well-being in the workplace and can be assessed with meaningful work, work engagement, workplace positive emotions, and job satisfaction. This theoretical perspective suggests a bifactor model would best explain the relations among these variables, but this claim remains untested. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether a bifactor model best explained the relations among the four components of fulfilling work, in comparison to other plausible models. We also examined the concurrent and convergent validity of the fulfilling work construct, using other well-being variables, symptoms of distress, and contextual factor variables drawn from vocational theories. Supporting hypotheses, we found that a bifactor model best fit the data. We also found that fulfilling work positively related to eudaimonic work well-being, hedonic work well-being, and life satisfaction and negatively related to symptoms of distress. Finally, fulfilling work positively related to income and subjective social class. These findings offer conceptual and statistical implications of fulfilling work for research, counseling, organizations, and social advocacy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)425-434
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of counseling psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 6 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Psychological Association


  • job satisfaction
  • meaningful work
  • positive emotions
  • work engagement
  • work well-being
  • Humans
  • Occupations
  • Income
  • Workplace
  • Social Class
  • Job Satisfaction

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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