The recent publication of the results of the tarenflurbil trial in which a promising ?-secretase inhibitor failed to show efficacy in treating the sporadic form of Alzheimers disease represents yet another setback in our efforts to develop disease-modifying agents for the treatment of this dreaded condition.1 Unfortunately, this is just the latest in a line of promising agents that have failed to show any benefit when tested in well-designed clinical trials. Given that those reaching the age of 85 years have a 50% chance of developing this condition, such failures present not only a societal challenge but a very disturbing prospect for each of us. Furthermore, with the graying of the worlds population, the sporadic form of Alzheimers disease is becoming a major burden on our already limited health-care resources. It is estimated that today there are 45 million individuals in the United States with this disease and a total of 100 million worldwide. By the year 2050, these numbers are projected to increase to 14 million in the United States and 280 million worldwide.