Auxin is an essential phytohormone that regulates many aspects of plant development. To identify new genes that function in auxin signaling, we performed a genetic screen for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with an alteration in the expression of the auxin-responsive reporter DR5rev:GFP (for green fluorescent protein). One of the mutants recovered in this screen, called weak auxin response1 (wxr1), has a defect in auxin response and exhibits a variety of auxin-related growth defects in the root. Polar auxin transport is reduced in wxr1 seedlings, resulting in auxin accumulation in the hypocotyl and cotyledons and a reduction in auxin levels in the root apex. In addition, the levels of the PIN auxin transport proteins are reduced in the wxr1 root. We also show that WXR1 is ROOT UV-B SENSITIVE2 (RUS2), a member of the broadly conserved DUF647 domain protein family found in diverse eukaryotic organisms. Our data indicate that RUS2/WXR1 is required for auxin transport and to maintain the normal levels of PIN proteins in the root.