Applying arace(ism)-conscious adaptation of the cfir framework to understand implementation of aschool-based equity-oriented intervention

Michele Allen, April Wilhelm, Luis Enrique Ortega, Shannon Pergament, Nicole Bates, Brooke Cunningham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objectives: To use the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) adapted to a race-conscious frame to understand ways that structural racism interacts with intervention implementation and uptake within an equity-oriented trial designed to enhance student-school connectedness. Design: Secondary analysis of qualitative implementation data from Project TRUST (Training for Resiliency in Urban Students and Teachers), a hybrid effectiveness-implementation, community-based participatory intervention. Setting: Ten schools across one urban school district. Methods: We analyzed qualitative observational field notes, youth and parent researcher reflections, and semi-structured interviews with community-Academic researchers and school-based partners within CFIR constructs based on framing questions using a Public Health Critical Race Praxis approach. Results: Within most CFIR constructs and sub-constructs, we identified barriers to implementation uptake not previously recognized using standard race-neutral definitions. Themes that crossed constructs included: 1) Leaders willingness to examine Black, Indigenous, People of Color (BIPOC) student and parent experiences of school discrimination and marginalization had a cascading influence on multiple factors related to implementation uptake; 2) The race/ethnicity of the principals was related to intervention engagement and intervention uptake, particularly at the extremes, but the relationship was complex; 3) External change agents from BIPOC communities facilitated intervention uptake in indirect but significant ways; 4) Highly networked implementation champions had the ability to enhance commitment to intervention uptake; however, perceptions of these individuals and the degree to which they were networked was highly racialized. Conclusions: Equity-oriented interventions should consider structural racism within the CFIR model to better understand intervention uptake.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)375-388
Number of pages14
JournalEthnicity and Disease
Issue numberSuppl 1
StatePublished - May 20 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research is supported by the National Institutes of Minority Health and Health Disparities (R01MD0110586). Dr. Cunningham is supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (K23 HL143146). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Ethnicity and Disease, Inc.. All rights reserved.


  • Health Disparities
  • Implementation Science
  • School Connectedness
  • Public Health
  • Students
  • Humans
  • Adolescent
  • Qualitative Research
  • Schools

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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