Application of the smokeless tobacco expectancies questionnaire to snus

Sarah E. Adkison, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Vaughan W. Rees, Dorothy K. Hatsukami, K. Michael Cummings, Richard J. O'Connor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective: Measures of consumer perceptions of emerging tobacco products are needed for understanding the potential for product adoption and use. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the applicability of the Smokeless Tobacco Expectancies Questionnaire to snus, and examine its association with interest in using snus. Methods: We recruited 116 adolescents (14-17 years of age), 463 young adults (18-34 years of age), and 596 older adults (35-65 years of age) from a Web-based opt-in panel. Participants completed a 10-item Snus Expectancies Questionnaire and questions about their interest in trying snus in the next month. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis supported a latent factor structure representing Positive Reinforcement (PR) and Negative Health Consequences (NHC) within each age group. The scales differentiate smokers and smokeless tobacco users and nonusers. Each scale was associated with interest in purchasing snus for younger (PR: OR 1.90; NHC: OR 0.66) and older (PR: OR 1.36; NHC: OR 0.69) adults controlling for tobacco use status. Conclusions: The modified Smokeless Tobacco Expectancies Questionnaire is a valid measure of snus-related outcome expectancies, which are in turn, associated with self-reported tobacco use, and may help to identify groups who are susceptible to snus initiation and use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)652-658
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican journal of health behavior
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by a cooperative agreement from the National Cancer Institute (U19CA157345).

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © PNG Publications. All rights reserved.


  • Smokeless tobacco expectancies questionnaire
  • Snus
  • Tobacco use


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