Application of fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring changes in nonfat dry milk during storage

X. Liu, L. E. Metzger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


The objective of this study was to determine if fluorescence spectroscopy could be used to characterize the biochemical characteristics of nonfat dry milk (NDM) caused by manufacturing and storage conditions. Nine low-heat NDM samples were collected from 3 manufacturers and stored at 4 temperatures (4, 22, 35, and 50°C) for 8 wk. The spectra of Maillard products, tryptophan, and riboflavin were recorded and analyzed with principal components analysis. Colorimetric indices L*, a*, and b* were also determined. The before-storage NDM samples collected from each manufacturer had different fluorescent characteristics. Inconsistency was observed for the NDM samples collected from 1 manufacturer, whereas the samples from the other 2 manufacturers displayed consistent fluorescence characteristics. Biochemical reactions, such as Maillard reaction, modification of the tryptophan environment, and degradation of riboflavin occurred during the manufacturing process. For each of the data collections, discrimination of the NDM samples stored at 50°C from the samples stored at 4, 22, and 35°C was observed in the similarity maps. The factor loadings of the first 2 principal components for the fluorescence spectra of the samples before storage were similar to the principal components analysis results of the samples during storage. It appears that similar factors are responsible for the variation in the samples before storage and their changes during storage. Additionally, storage of the samples at 50°C accelerated these reactions. The results demonstrate that front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, coupled with multivariate statistical methods, can be utilized as an analytical technique to monitor variation in NDM samples from different manufacturers and changes during storage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24-37
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2007


  • Chemometrics
  • Fluorescence spectroscopy
  • Nonfat dry milk
  • Storage


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