Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating cause of hypoxic respiratory failure, which continues to have high mortality. It is expected that a comprehensive systems- level approach will identify global and complex changes that contribute to the development of ARDS and subsequent repair of the damaged lung. In the last decade, powerful genome-wide analytical and informatics tools have been developed, that have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of complex diseases such as ARDS. These tools include the rapid and precise measure of gene expression at the proteomic level. This article reviews the contemporary proteomics platforms that are available for comprehensive studies in ARDS. The challenges of various biofluids that could be investigated and some of the studies performed are also discussed.