Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension Assessed by Office and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Chronic Kidney Disease-A Report from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

George Thomas, Jesse Felts, Carolyn S. Brecklin, Jing Chen, Paul E. Drawz, Eva Lustigova, Rupal Mehta, Edgar R.Miller Iii, Stephen M. Sozio, Matthew R. Weir, Dawei Xie, Xue Wang, Mahboob Rahman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension is common in patients with CKD. Whether measurement of 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring is valuable for risk-stratifying patients with resistant hypertension and CKD is unclear. Methods We analyzed data from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study, a prospective study of participants (n51186) with CKD. Office BP was measured using standardized protocols; ambulatory BP was measured using Spacelabs monitors. Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension was defined on the basis of office BP, ambulatory BP monitoring, and use of more than three antihypertensive medications. Outcomes were composite cardiovascular disease, kidney outcomes, and mortality. Groups were compared using Cox regression analyses with a control group of participants without apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. Results Of 475 participants with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension on the basis of office BP, 91.6% had apparent treatment-resistant hypertension confirmed by ambulatory BP monitoring. Unadjusted event rates of composite cardiovascular disease, kidney outcomes, and mortality were higher in participants with ambulatory BP monitoring-defined apparent treatment-resistant hypertension compared with participants without apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. In adjusted analyses, the risks of composite cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.59 to 2.7), kidney outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% CI, 0.88 to 3.21), and mortality (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.5 to 3.25) were not statistically significantly higher in participants with ambulatory BP monitoring-defined apparent treatment-resistant hypertension compared with participants without apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. Conclusions In our study population with CKD, most patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension defined on the basis of office BP have apparent treatment-resistant hypertension confirmed by ambulatory BP monitoring. Although ABPM-defined apparent treatment-resistant hypertension was not independently associated with clinical outcomes, it identified participants at high risk for adverse clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)810-818
Number of pages9
JournalKidney360
Volume1
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2020 by the American Society of Nephrology.

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