Apparent diffusion coefficients of the five major metabolites measured in the human brain in vivo at 3T

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Abstract

Purpose: To measure the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) of five main metabolites in the human brain at 3T with PRESS and STEAM, avoiding measurement biases because of cross-terms. Cross-terms arise from interactions between slice-selection and spoiler gradients in the localized spectroscopy sequence and the diffusion gradients. Methods: Diffusion-weighted spectra were acquired from the prefrontal cortex in five healthy subjects using STEAM (echo time [TE]/mixing time [TM]/pulse repetition time [TR] = 21.22/105/3000 ms, b-values = 0 and 3172 s/mm 2 ) and PRESS (TE/TR = 54.2/3000 ms, b-values = 0 and 2204 s/mm 2 ). Diffusion weighting was applied using bipolar gradients in three orthogonal directions. Post-processed spectra were analyzed with LCModel, and the trace/3 ADC values were calculated. Results: Comparable trace/3 ADC values (0.14–0.18 µm 2 /ms) were obtained for five main metabolites with both methods. These metabolites were quantified with Cramér-Rao lower bounds below 15%. Conclusion: The ADC values of the five main metabolites were successfully measured in the human brain at 3T with eliminated directional dependence. Both STEAM and PRESS can be used to probe the diffusivity of metabolites in normal brain and various pathologies on the clinical scanner with slightly higher precision achieved with STEAM for glutamate and myo-inositol. Magn Reson Med 79:2896–2901, 2018.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2896-2901
Number of pages6
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Volume79
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018

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Brain
Clinical Pathology
Inositol
Prefrontal Cortex
Glutamic Acid
Spectrum Analysis
Healthy Volunteers

Keywords

  • ADC
  • PRESS
  • STEAM
  • glutamate
  • myo-inositol

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Cite this

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title = "Apparent diffusion coefficients of the five major metabolites measured in the human brain in vivo at 3T",
abstract = "Purpose: To measure the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) of five main metabolites in the human brain at 3T with PRESS and STEAM, avoiding measurement biases because of cross-terms. Cross-terms arise from interactions between slice-selection and spoiler gradients in the localized spectroscopy sequence and the diffusion gradients. Methods: Diffusion-weighted spectra were acquired from the prefrontal cortex in five healthy subjects using STEAM (echo time [TE]/mixing time [TM]/pulse repetition time [TR] = 21.22/105/3000 ms, b-values = 0 and 3172 s/mm 2 ) and PRESS (TE/TR = 54.2/3000 ms, b-values = 0 and 2204 s/mm 2 ). Diffusion weighting was applied using bipolar gradients in three orthogonal directions. Post-processed spectra were analyzed with LCModel, and the trace/3 ADC values were calculated. Results: Comparable trace/3 ADC values (0.14–0.18 µm 2 /ms) were obtained for five main metabolites with both methods. These metabolites were quantified with Cram{\'e}r-Rao lower bounds below 15{\%}. Conclusion: The ADC values of the five main metabolites were successfully measured in the human brain at 3T with eliminated directional dependence. Both STEAM and PRESS can be used to probe the diffusivity of metabolites in normal brain and various pathologies on the clinical scanner with slightly higher precision achieved with STEAM for glutamate and myo-inositol. Magn Reson Med 79:2896–2901, 2018.",
keywords = "ADC, PRESS, STEAM, glutamate, myo-inositol",
author = "Deelchand, {Dinesh K} and Auerbach, {Edward J} and Malgorzata Marjanska",
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T1 - Apparent diffusion coefficients of the five major metabolites measured in the human brain in vivo at 3T

AU - Deelchand, Dinesh K

AU - Auerbach, Edward J

AU - Marjanska, Malgorzata

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Y1 - 2018/6/1

N2 - Purpose: To measure the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) of five main metabolites in the human brain at 3T with PRESS and STEAM, avoiding measurement biases because of cross-terms. Cross-terms arise from interactions between slice-selection and spoiler gradients in the localized spectroscopy sequence and the diffusion gradients. Methods: Diffusion-weighted spectra were acquired from the prefrontal cortex in five healthy subjects using STEAM (echo time [TE]/mixing time [TM]/pulse repetition time [TR] = 21.22/105/3000 ms, b-values = 0 and 3172 s/mm 2 ) and PRESS (TE/TR = 54.2/3000 ms, b-values = 0 and 2204 s/mm 2 ). Diffusion weighting was applied using bipolar gradients in three orthogonal directions. Post-processed spectra were analyzed with LCModel, and the trace/3 ADC values were calculated. Results: Comparable trace/3 ADC values (0.14–0.18 µm 2 /ms) were obtained for five main metabolites with both methods. These metabolites were quantified with Cramér-Rao lower bounds below 15%. Conclusion: The ADC values of the five main metabolites were successfully measured in the human brain at 3T with eliminated directional dependence. Both STEAM and PRESS can be used to probe the diffusivity of metabolites in normal brain and various pathologies on the clinical scanner with slightly higher precision achieved with STEAM for glutamate and myo-inositol. Magn Reson Med 79:2896–2901, 2018.

AB - Purpose: To measure the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) of five main metabolites in the human brain at 3T with PRESS and STEAM, avoiding measurement biases because of cross-terms. Cross-terms arise from interactions between slice-selection and spoiler gradients in the localized spectroscopy sequence and the diffusion gradients. Methods: Diffusion-weighted spectra were acquired from the prefrontal cortex in five healthy subjects using STEAM (echo time [TE]/mixing time [TM]/pulse repetition time [TR] = 21.22/105/3000 ms, b-values = 0 and 3172 s/mm 2 ) and PRESS (TE/TR = 54.2/3000 ms, b-values = 0 and 2204 s/mm 2 ). Diffusion weighting was applied using bipolar gradients in three orthogonal directions. Post-processed spectra were analyzed with LCModel, and the trace/3 ADC values were calculated. Results: Comparable trace/3 ADC values (0.14–0.18 µm 2 /ms) were obtained for five main metabolites with both methods. These metabolites were quantified with Cramér-Rao lower bounds below 15%. Conclusion: The ADC values of the five main metabolites were successfully measured in the human brain at 3T with eliminated directional dependence. Both STEAM and PRESS can be used to probe the diffusivity of metabolites in normal brain and various pathologies on the clinical scanner with slightly higher precision achieved with STEAM for glutamate and myo-inositol. Magn Reson Med 79:2896–2901, 2018.

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