Biliary pseudolithiasis has been reported in patients who received ceftriaxone therapy. To examine this phenomenon further, serial gallbladder sonograms were evaluated in 44 adult patients who received intravenous ceftriaxone at 2 g or a placebo daily for 14 days in a double-blind controlled study. Ultrasound examinations of gallbladders were performed on days 1 of 14 of therapy and 2 weeks posttherapy if abnormalities were observed on day 14. Eight patients were unevaluable because of abnormal base-line gallbladder sonograms. Thirty-six patients (ceftriaxone, n = 28; placebo, n = 8) demonstrated normal baseline gallbladder sonograms and were evaluated for the development of change. A total of 6 of 28 (21.4%) ceftriaxone-treated patients and 1 of 8 (12.5%) patients who received the placebo demonstrated abnormal gallbladder sonograms on day 14 (P = 0.491). Four of the six ceftriaxone-treated patients demonstrating abnormal sonograms were clinically asymptomatic, while two patients reported vomiting. The abnormal sonograms of gallbladders of patients treated with ceftriaxone returned to normal between 9 and 26 days posttherapy. These data suggest an association between ceftriaxone treatment and the development of gallbladder abnormalities on ultrasound examination which resolve spontaneously on discontinuation of ceftriaxone therapy.