In humans, apiaceous vegetables (carrots, parsnips, celery, parsley, etc.) inhibit cytochrome P-450 1A2, a biotransformation enzyme known to activate several procarcinogens, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB). We evaluated eight phytochemicals from apiaceous vegetables for effects on human cytochrome P-450 1A2 (hCYP1A2) activity using a methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) assay and a trp-recombination assay. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for heterologous CYP1A2 expression and this yeast strain is also diploid and auxotrophic for tryptophan due to mutations in the trp5 alleles. When these two alleles undergo AFB-induced mitotic recombination, gene conversion occurs, allowing yeast to grow in the absence of tryptophan. The apiaceous constituents psoralen, 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and apigenin were potent inhibitors of hCYP1A2-mediated MROD activity in yeast microsomes, whereas quercetin was a modest hCYP1A2 inhibitor. Naringenin, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid did not inhibit hCYP1A2-mediated MROD activity. The 2-h pretreatment of intact yeast cells with psoralen, 5-MOP, and 8-MOP significantly improved cell survival after subsequent 4-h AFB treatment and reduced hCYP1A2-mediated mutagenicity of AFB. Apigenin also significantly decreased mutagenicity. These results suggest that in vivo CYP1A2 inhibition by apiaceous vegetables may be due to the phytochemicals present and imply that apiaceous vegetable intake may be chemopreventive by inhibiting CYP1A2-mediated carcinogen activation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Edward J. Kelly and Yingying Guo for their much appreciated and invaluable advice and input. We also thank Julia Tracy and Daniel David for their technical support and commitment to helping a lab run smoothly. This work was supported by the NIEHS-sponsored Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, grant P30ES07033, and by R01 ES05780 and R01 CA070913. SP received support from National Cancer Institute training grant CA80416.