Antioxidant activities of soybean as affected by Bacillus-fermentation to kinema

Bijoy Moktan, Jayati Saha, Prabir K. Sarkar

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131 Scopus citations


The antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of kinema, fermented using Bacillus subtilis, and cooked non-fermented (CNF) soybean were evaluated by four in vitro methods, namely stable DPPH{radical dot}-scavenging activity, Fe3+-reducing power, Fe2+-chelating activity, and activity in linoleic acid emulsion system. The total phenol content of kinema was 144% higher than that of CNF soybean (3.3 mg g-1 dry weight). At all the tested concentrations (10-50 mg ml-1), kinema extract was found to be a better free radical scavenger, which increased in a time and dose-dependent manner, than the CNF soybean extract. The reducing power of kinema was 147% higher than that of CNF soybean (3.8 mg ascorbic acid equivalents g-1 dry weight). At 10 mg ml-1, the kinema extract exhibited 64% metal-chelating effect which was much higher than the effect shown by CNF soybean (22%). At 50 mg ml-1, after 24 h, while kinema exhibited antioxidant activity with 44% inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, CNF soybean exhibited 36% inhibition. The inhibition of both of them was found to decline with time and reached 26% after 72 h. The total phenol contents of kinema and CNF soybean were positively correlated (P < 0.01) with the respective values of free radical-scavenging activity (r = 0.96 and 0.82), reducing power (r = 0.94 and 0.82), metal-chelating activity (r = 0.95 and 0.76), and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (r = 0.91 and 0.82). Whereas the total phenol content in CNF soybean accounted for 68% of each of free radical-scavenging activity and reducing power, 58% of Fe2+-chelating activity and 66% of lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, that in kinema could reflect 83-92% of all the antioxidant parameters studied. The data also revealed a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between any two of these five parameters, indicating while total phenol content as the independent variable, all other parameters as the dependent variables. Thus, kinema may be exploited as a functional food to alleviate oxidative stress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)586-593
Number of pages8
JournalFood Research International
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jul 2008
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by grant, F.3–39/2007 (SAP-II), from the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India.


  • Antioxidant activity
  • Bacillus subtilis
  • Correlation
  • Fermentation
  • Kinema
  • Methanol extract
  • Polyphenolics
  • Soybean


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