Antimony(+5) ion induced tunable intramolecular charge transfer in hypervalent antimony(v) porphyrins

Noah Holzer, Jatan K. Sharma, Steven Peterson, Brandon J Bayard, Vladimir N. Nesterov, Paul A. Karr, Francis D'Souza, Prashanth K. Poddutoori

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6 Scopus citations


The +5 oxidation state of antimony induced push-pull style intramolecular charge transfer in an elegantly designed axial dimethoxyantimony(v) porphyrin series: SbP(OMe)2·PF6, SbMP(OMe)2·PF6, SbDMP(OMe)2·PF6, SbTMP(OMe)2·PF6 with phenyl (P), 4-methoxyphenyl (MP), 3,5-dimethoxyphenyl (DMP), and 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl (TMP) units, respectively, in its meso positions. The Sb(+5) made the porphyrin ring electron-poor, whereas the methoxy groups on the phenyl unit produced electron-rich sites within the molecule. The presence of electron-poor and electron-rich parts in the same molecule resulted in a push-pull type intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). However, the ICT is strongly dependent on the position of the methoxy groups on the phenyl ring. The charge transfer character is more pronounced in meta-methoxy substituted antimony(v) derivatives (SbDMP(OMe)2·PF6, SbTMP(OMe)2·PF6) than the para-methoxy or no-methoxy substituted antimony(v) derivatives (SbP(OMe)2·PF6, SbMP(OMe)2·PF6). Steady-state and transient spectroscopic techniques, as well as solvatochromism techniques, were employed to establish the tunable ICT. Additionally, time-dependant density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations were used to complement the experimental results. The systematic study of antimony(v) porphyrins, especially the tunable push-pull nature could play an important role in instigating high yield charge-separated states in multi-modular donor-acceptor systems for solar energy conversion and molecular electronic and photonic applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5890-5903
Number of pages14
JournalDalton Transactions
Issue number15
StatePublished - Mar 21 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the University of Minnesota - Grant-in-Aid program (No. 380228) and the University of Minnesota Duluth - Advanced Materials Center - SEED Grant program to PPK and by the National Science Foundation (2000988) to FD. The authors also acknowledge NSF-MRI Program (CHE-1726652), and the University of North Texas for supporting the acquisition of the Rigaku XtaLAB Synergy-S X-ray diffractometer. The computational work was completed at the Holland Computing Center of the University of Nebraska, which receives support from the Nebraska Research Initiative.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


  • Antimony
  • Density Functional Theory
  • Electrons
  • Porphyrins/chemistry
  • Solar Energy

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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