Antimicrobial use quantification in adult dairy cows – Part 1 – Standardized regimens as a method for describing antimicrobial use

Nora Schrag, Michael D. Apley, Sandra M Godden, Brian Lubbers, Randall Singer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


This study describes a process to acquire and convert farm treatment records into a standardized regimen format. Multiple sources of on-farm data were utilized to convert the original treatment records to standardized regimens, enabling the generation of objective, granular descriptions of antimicrobial use. These standard regimen descriptions allow antimicrobial use data to be qualitatively stratified by active substance, disease syndrome treated, use category, and route of administration. Quantitative distributions are available for the grams of active substance per administration, the grams of active substance per regimen, the number of administrations, number of days of therapy and the time frame between the first and last administration. Granular quantification by this method informs future research, surveillance and policy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-68
Number of pages18
JournalZoonoses and Public Health
Volume67 Suppl 1
Issue numberS1
StatePublished - Nov 17 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Thank you to the producers who volunteered their time, data and expertise in helping to identify useful antimicrobial use measures. Collaboration on data management and analysis were provided by the Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health (CEAH) at USDA:APHIS:VS in Fort Collins, Colorado. Funding for this project was made possible, in part, by the US Food and Drug Administration through grant number U01FD005868. Views expressed do not necessarily reflect the official policies of the Department of Health and Human Services; nor does any mention of trade names, commercial practices, or organization imply endorsement by the United States Government. Special thanks to Dr. Kathe Bjork (USDA‐APHIS CEAH) and Dr. Susan Bright and Dr. Anna Nevius (FDA) for collaborations on data management and review of the manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH


  • antibacterial agents
  • days of therapy
  • defined daily dose
  • drug utilization
  • pharmacoepidemiology
  • resistance

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.


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