Objective To compare concentrations of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) in women with and without type 1 diabetes. Design Cross-sectional analysis of longitudinal studies, adjusting for repeated measures. Setting Not applicable. Patient(s) Women aged 30–45 years who had not undergone oophorectomy, hysterectomy, or natural menopause at the time of AMH measurement were included (n = 376 in the Michigan Bone Health and Metabolism Study and n = 321 in the Epidemiology of Interventions and Complications Study). Linear mixed regression was used to evaluate whether AMH concentrations differed by diabetes status, adjusting for repeated measurements of AMH within individual women, body mass index, smoking status, and oral contraceptive use. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Concentrations of AMH. Result(s) In unadjusted comparisons, women with and without diabetes had similar median AMH values before 35 years of age, although women with type 1 diabetes had a lower proportion of women with elevated AMH concentrations (≥5.0 ng/dL). After adjustment for covariates and multiple observations per woman, log AMH concentrations were significantly lower among women with type 1 diabetes compared with women without diabetes (β-coefficient −1.27, 95% confidence interval [−2.18, −0.36] in fully adjusted models) before 35 years of age. Conclusion(s) Before 35 years of age, women with type 1 diabetes have lower AMH levels than women without diabetes. Further investigation is needed to determine the etiologies of this difference and how it may contribute to reproductive disorders among women with type 1 diabetes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Assay kits for the measurement of antimüllerian hormone in the Michigan Bone Health and Metabolism Study were provided at no charge by Beckman Coulter. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications were supported by U01 Cooperative Agreement grants (1982–1993, 2011–2016) and contracts (1982–2011) with the Division of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (current grant numbers U01 DK094176 and U01 DK094157), and through support by the National Eye Institute, the National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, the Genetic Clinical Research Centers Program (1993–2007), and the Clinical Translational Science Center Program (2006–present), Bethesda, Maryland. Additional support for this work was provided by National Institutes of Health (DP3 DK098129). The Michigan Bone Health and Metabolism Study received support from the National Institute of Arthritis and Muscular Skeletal and Skin Diseases (AG051384). S.K. was an employee at Purdue University during the completion of the manuscript. S.D.H. gratefully acknowledges use of the services and facilities of the Population Studies Center at the University of Michigan, funded by Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Center Grant R24 HD041028. C.K.-G. is partially supported by a Claude Pepper Career Development Award.
- Ovarian hormones
- reproductive endocrinology
- type 1 diabetes
- women's health