Anti-inflammatory effect of avenanthramides via NF-κB pathways in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells

Choung-Hun Kang, Woo Shik Shin, Dongwook Yeo, Wonchung Lim, Li Li Ji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Avenanthramides (Avns), the polyphenol compounds found only in oats, have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects mainly by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in select cell lines. However, the molecular mechanism by which Avns regulate the NF-κB pathway is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the molecular mechanism by which three main fractions of Avns (AvnA, AvnB and AvnC) interact with IκB Kinase β (IKKβ); and (2) whether this interaction results in reduced inflammatory responses in skeletal muscle cells. The protein-ligand docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies suggest that Avns acted as an allosteric inhibitor for modulating IKKβ’s affinity for the NF-κB complex. Thus, Avns reduced IKKβ kinase activity in response to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) stimulation and attenuated tBHP-induced TNFα and IL-1β mRNA expression. Furthermore, the three-fold increases in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and luciferase activity with tBHP treatment were reduced by 50% with Avns (P <.01), along with decreased prostaglandin E2 levels (P <.01). These data indicate that Avns are potent inhibitors of NFκB-mediated inflammatory response due to the downregulation of IKKβ activity in C2C12 cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)30-36
Number of pages7
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
StatePublished - Mar 2018


  • Avenanthramides
  • Inflammation
  • NF-κB
  • Skeletal muscle


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