Diets containing freeze-dried black raspberries (BRB) suppress the development of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced tumors in the rat esophagus. Using bioassay-directed fractionation, the anthocyanins in BRB were found to be the most active constituents for down-regulation of carcinogen-induced nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1 expression in mouse epidermal cells in vitro. The present study was undertaken, therefore, to determine if the anthocyanins contribute to the chemopreventive activity of BRB in vivo. F344 rats consumed diets containing either (a) 5% whole BRB powder, (b) an anthocyanin-rich fraction, (c) an organic solvent-soluble extract (a-c each contained ∼3.8 μmol anthocyanins/g diet), (d) an organic-insoluble (residue) fraction (containing 0.02 μmol anthocyanins/g diet), (e) a hexane extract, and (f) a sugar fraction (e and f had only trace quantities of anthocyanins), all derived from BRB. Animals were fed diets 2 weeks before treatment with NMBA and throughout the bioassay. Control rats were treated with NMBA only. Animals were killed at week 30, and esophageal tumors were enumerated. The anthocyanin treatments (diet groups a-c) were about equally effective in reducing NMBA tumorigenesis in the esophagus, indicating that the anthocyanins in BRB have chemopreventive potential. The organic-insoluble (residue) fraction (d) was also effective, suggesting that components other than berry anthocyanins may be chemopreventive. The hexane and sugar diets were inactive. Diet groups a, b, and d all inhibited cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis and induced apoptosis in both preneoplastic and papillomatous esophageal tissues, suggesting similar mechanisms of action by the different berry components.
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